Journal of Communication Inquiry 1988; 12; 89
- Definition of communication from Raymond Williams, Armand Mattelart [i.e. it represents a real link between real people within a real time & space, and the link has different forms according to the social groups involved]
- Women as producers and consumers of communication: (a) Operators; (b) Consumers [party lines, easing of burden of housework, gossip]
- Women's social life before the phone
- Bell's advertising of phone
- Women insisted on using phone in their own way -- Bell forced to re-evaluate how it developed the phone system.
- Phone's impact: housewives modified their habits - characteristics of their regular haunts changed e.g. before they used to go to market to shop and socialise with friends; now they go only to shop.